Studies on Grammaticalization (Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs [TiLSM])
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Insights from Practices in Bischoff Editor Carmen Jany Editor The Dialects of Irish Trends in Linguistics. New Challenges in Typology Trends in Linguistics. Modality and Theory of Mind What makes Grammaticalization? Himmelmann Editor Language Usage and Language Describing and Modeling Indo-European and the Gamkrelidze Author Vjaceslav V. Ivanov Author Dialectology meets Typology Trends in Linguistics. Europa Vasconica--Europa Language History and Folk Linguistics Trends in Linguistics. Niedzielski Author Dennis R.
Preston Author Instruction Grammar Trends in Linguistics.
Polysemy Trends in Linguistics. Situated Communication Trends in Linguistics. Salience Trends in Linguistics. Frequency Effects in Language Gries Editor Teil: Syntax. Wunderlich, Dieter Sprache und Raum. Studium Linguistik 12, 1—19; 13, 37— Grammaticalization and sets of form-function pairs 55 Appendix Table 1.
BC: Opera Omnia Lysias, 5th—4th c.
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BC: Opera Omnia Xenophon, 4th c. BC: Hellenica Total Menander, 4th—3rd c.
AD: Ephesiaca Longus, 3rd c. AD: Daphnis et Chloe Heliodorus, 3rd c. AD: Chronographia Georgius Monachus, 9th c.
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AD: Chronicon breve Total Anonymous, 12th c. AD: Digenes Akritas Anonymous, 14th c. AD: Hist. Alexandri Magni F Total n of words 67 67 26 35 17 20 80 91 16 48 64 56 Stavros Skopeteas Table 2.
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Introduction It is well-known that Korean is a language with numeral classifiers. In this sense, it is not surprising that many Korean linguists such as Yang , , Lee , Woo , and Woo et al. However, none of these works treats the grammaticalization of Korean numeral classifiers as its primary subject.
The purpose of this paper therefore is to introduce Korean numeral classifiers and to discuss their grammaticalization. A substantial part of the Korean numeral classifiers has developed from common nouns and can be considered grammaticalized. Diachronic and synchronic evidence supports this fact cf.
This paper primarily discusses some typical examples of Korean numeral classifiers that show characteristics of the kind of grammaticalization described by Lehmann , a. Korean numeral classifiers can be divided into several groups according to semantic criteria such as animacy, shape, and function.
Each of these groups contains at least four classifiers, but one among these classifiers tends to gain preeminence and replace the others within the group. Hence, although all members of the paradigm are of common origin, a numeral classifier exhibits a higher degree of grammaticality than the others. The relation of this type of change to grammaticalization will be a central subject of this paper. Numeral classifiers in Korean According to Woo , there are more than numeral classifiers in Korean,1 and all of them are derived from nouns.
The categorization of salam as a numeral classifier is not in doubt, since it is combined with numerals in order to count the number of people e. Woo By contrast, phil is primarily used to refer to horses, and occasionally to cows. Their uses can be categorized as follows: 3 a. The appropriate classifier is selected primarily according to the physical shape of the objects being counted cf.
Craig on semantic properties of classifiers : For one-dimensional objects, kaepi or calu is used; for twodimensional ones, cang or kwPn; for three-dimensional ones, kae, al, chae, tae, or chPk. The items kaepi and calu can be further distinguished according to the size of their referents: kaepi is used for small and thin one-dimensional objects such as cigarettes, matches, etc.
For two-dimensional objects, cang is used as an unmarked classifier. It is associated with nouns that refer to flat objects such as paper, bank notes, credit cards, diskettes, etc. The item kwPn is functionally motivated and is used for all sorts of books, including magazines and pamphlets on functionally motivated classifiers, cf.
Woo , section 5. According to Woo , kae is a numeral classifier for three-dimensional objects. If an object has a spherical form such as pills or bullets, then al is used as its classifier. For some objects such as buildings, cars, buses, airplanes, and ships, special classifiers that are functionally motivated are put to use:5 chae for buildings; tae for cars, buses, airplanes, musical instruments, and machinery;6 chPk for ships.
The descriptions of Korean numeral classifiers are summarized in Table 1 cf. Arguments for the grammaticalization of numeral classifiers 3. General properties The various Korean numeral classifiers have some characteristics of grammaticalization in common. First, they have lost their lexical meaning. The degree of their desemanticization varies according to the degree to Grammaticalization of Korean numeral classifiers 63 which the classifier is grammaticalized cf. At any rate, they show some loss of paradigmatic weight, namely their integrity cf.
Lehmann f. Lehmann a on grammaticalization in general. Second, they permit no plural marking as in 4 cf. This means that the Korean numeral classifiers have more or less lost their lexical meaning and have little or no referring function cf. Allan on the loss of lexemic status for classifiers. This means that the classifiers have a paradigmatic relationship. Fourth, they cannot in principle appear alone without a numeral, although they are free forms see details in 3. Nam and Ko Furthermore, nothing can intervene between the numeral and the classifier, regardless of the degree of its grammaticalization, i.
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Lehmann Examples in 6 demonstrate that the coordination reduction in the b-constructions is impossible. This fact leads to the conclusion that the bondedness of Korean numeral classifiers is very high. Grammaticalization asymmetries within groups of numeral classifiers 3. Numeral classifiers for human beings As we have seen in section 2, human nouns take myPng, pun, nom, or salam as a numeral classifier.
Of these, myPng seems to be the most grammaticalized classifier. Two lines of evidence support this argument: myPng can only be combined with numerals, not with adjectives and determiners see 7 , which does not hold for the further classifiers of this group, namely pun, nom, and salam see 8. Grammaticalization of Korean numeral classifiers 65 7 a.
It may be concluded that myPng is the most grammaticalized classifier because it has no syntagmatic variability.
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By contrast, pun, nom, and salam have some syntagmatic variability, and therefore they are less grammaticalized than myPng. Although the grammaticalization process of salam has lasted for a long time, it is the least grammaticalized of the classifiers for human beings, as has been shown. The fact that salam is combined with a restricted set of nouns is also an argument for its low degree of grammaticalization.
There is another evidence for this argument. The item myPng can always substitute for salam, pun, and nom. This means that myPng is already desemanticized and does not impose any semantic restrictions. In other words, without a head noun, myPng cannot easily be used as an anaphoric device.
For other classifiers such as salam, pun, and nom, this is not the case.