The Skeptics Handbook
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The worst criticism was that some statistical procedures were questionable, but the conclusions drawn were not affected. Compare that with the money that flows to denialist organisations from the fossil fuel industry. That's just under 0.
That's 4kg of CO 2 sitting over each square metre of the earth's surface. In it was only 0. Now it's 0. As denialists are fond of pointing out, the effect is logarithmic, so it's the percentage increase that matters, not the absolute numbers. This deliberately confuses two things.
The Skeptics Handbook | Climate Dispatch
There is a vast natural cycle of CO 2 in the biosphere. The problem is that we are adding to that cycle by burning carbon that was safely locked away underground. Over time, the amount in the cycle gets bigger. It's both. Raising the earth's temperature a little puts a little more CO2 in the atmosphere, which raises the temperature a tiny bit more, and so on. It's a diminishing effect so it settles down at some point - unless you keep adding CO2 in some other way.
Yes, but the year-on-year change is relentlessly up. After five years it swamps the annual variation, as shown in their graph. Almost all of that 32 Gt is part of the natural cycle; it is not 32 Gt being added to the cycle.
Everything not at absolute zero temperature radiates energy in all directions. The CO 2 in the atmosphere is warmed by heat radiating from the earth and its oceans, and it radiates some of that energy back down. That is the greenhouse effect. No, they show that on most occasions it has led by up to years.
If the initial cause of the temperature rise on those occasions was something else - solar activity, a gigantic release of methane, shifts in ocean circulation as continents moved - this is what one would expect. The rising temperature drives some CO 2 release, raising temperatures further. In several cases we have a good idea what that cause was, and if any of them were the trigger for the current warming we would know.
But this time CO 2 increased first, and we have no other credible explanation for the temperature rise. As with the Justice section, most of this consists of what might go wrong if poorly implemented. Some other points Quite so. This neatly illustrates how humanity can now so affect the environment that we can wreak serious damage if we are not careful.
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Now we need to take the next step and replace coal and oil. Quite so, and no secret. Sadly, it's still well short of what the world needs. Energy costs will increase, but not by as much as they're already increasing in NSW for infrastructure, once underfunded, now overfunded.
Even if we were to stick with coal-fired power, there are a lot of power stations that need replacing in the next 20 years, at a cost of billions. Coal and gas will steadily become more expensive too. Eventually renewables will be the only option. Since it will take a huge investment of energy to develop the infrastructure for that, better do it while we still have enough fossil fuels to do it with. It becomes available for extra services or reduced taxes elsewhere, whatever the electorate wants. As with households, it is perfectly possible to tax the energy but hand a lot of the money raised back to industry in other ways.
This makes the cost to industry quite small, while preserving an incentive to switch to greener energy.
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It would also make sense to tax imports based on the carbon footprint and lack of carbon tax in the country of origin, though that will take some negotiation with the WTO. In the energy industry itself, there are more jobs in renewables than in the equivalent fossil fuels.
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That is why they're more expensive. Most of this page consists of scary projections of how schemes to cut carbon emissions might be badly implemented. Such fears can be conjoured up around anything new as an excuse to do nothing. Records are set all the time.
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One really warm year is not global warming. Answer: This is actually not an unreasonable …. Glaciers have grown and receded differently in many times and places. Part of the How to Talk to a Global Warming Skeptic guide Objection: The surface temperature record is full of assumptions, corrections, differing equipment and station settings, changing technology, varying altitudes, and more. It is not possible to claim we …. Does this even deserve an answer? If we must Part of the How to Talk to a Global Warming Skeptic guide Objection: Satellite readings, which are much more accurate, show that the earth is in fact cooling.
I wonder how long before this one stops coming up? Part of the How to Talk to a Global Warming Skeptic guide Objection: There was global cooling in the '40s, '50s, and '60s, even while human greenhouse-gas emissions were rising. Clearly, temperature is not being driven by CO2. Part of the How to Talk to a Global Warming Skeptic guide Objection: The Antarctic ice sheets are actually growing, which wouldn't be happening if global warming were real. Answer: There are two distinct problems with this argument. First, any …. Global warming is over.
Answer: At the time, was a record high year in both the CRU and …. But if you look at the studies, most of those for which we have data are growing. Answer: This is simply not …. Sounds like natural fluctuations that balance out in the end. Answer: Overall, …. Part of the How to Talk to a Global Warming Skeptic guide Objection: According to the latest state-of-the-art satellite measurements from over the Arctic, sea levels are falling!
Guess all that ice isn't melting after all. Answer: Yes, a new …. Part of the How to Talk to a Global Warming Skeptic guide Objection: Taking into account the logarithmic effect of CO2 on temperature, the 35 percent increase we have already seen in CO2 concentrations represents about three-quarters of the total …. If there were really global warming, it would be warming everywhere.
Answer: Global warming is the long-term …. This is ….
Part of the How to Talk to a Global Warming Skeptic guide Objection: Climate is complicated and there are lots of competing theories and unsolved mysteries. Until this is all worked out, one can't claim there is consensus on global …. Part of the How to Talk to a Global Warming Skeptic guide Objection: All those institutional position statements are fine, but by their very nature they paper over debate and obscure the variety of individual positions.
The real debate is …. Part of the How to Talk to a Global Warming Skeptic guide Objection: More and more, climate models share all the same assumptions -- so of course they all agree! And every year, fewer scientists dare speak out against the …. Part of the How to Talk to a Global Warming Skeptic guide Objection: Sure, Oreskes found no one bucking the consensus, but her paper was refuted by Benny Peiser, who did the exact same survey and found very different results.
Part of the How to Talk to a Global Warming Skeptic guide Objection: Clouds are a large negative feedback that will stop any drastic warming. The climate models don't even take cloud effects into account. Answer: All of the atmospheric …. Part of the How to Talk to a Global Warming Skeptic guide Objection: Why should we trust a bunch of contrived computer models that have never had a prediction confirmed? Talk to me in years. Answer: Given the absence …. Part of the How to Talk to a Global Warming Skeptic guide Objection: Scientists claim that global warming from greenhouse gases is being countered somewhat by global dimming from aerosol pollution.
They even claim that aerosol pollution caused the cooling …. Part of the How to Talk to a Global Warming Skeptic guide Objection: Scientists can't even predict the weather next week, so why should we believe what some climate model tells us about years from now?
Answer: Climate and …. Part of the How to Talk to a Global Warming Skeptic guide Objection: Climate is an inherently chaotic system, and as such its behavior can not be predicted. Answer: Firstly, let's make sure we define climate: an average of weather ….